The Days are Alternated Between the People | Imām as-Saʿdī



﴿ إِن يَمۡسَسۡكُمۡ قَرۡحٌ فَقَدۡ مَسَّ ٱلۡقَوۡمَ قَرۡحٌ مِّثۡلُهُۥۚ وَتِلۡكَ ٱلۡأَيَّامُ نُدَاوِلُهَا بَيۡنَ ٱلنَّاسِ وَلِيَعۡلَمَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَيَتَّخِذَ مِنكُمۡ شُهَدَآءَۗ وَٱللَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ ٱلظَّٰلِمِينَ ﴾

❝If a wound (and killing) has touched you, be sure a similar wound (and killing) has touched the others. And so are the days (good and not so good), We give to men by turns, that Allāh may test those who believe, and that He may take martyrs from among you. And Allāh likes not the Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers).❞

Translation of Sūrah Āl ʿImrān 3:140 by Shaykh Muḥammad Taqī ud-Dīn al-Hilālī and Muḥsin Khān -May Allāh have mercy on them-

Explanation of Verse 140 from Sūrah Āl ʿImrān

Then He consoles them for what they suffered of defeat, and explains the great wisdom that resulted in it.

So He said,

﴿ إِن يَمۡسَسۡكُمۡ قَرۡحٌ فَقَدۡ مَسَّ ٱلۡقَوۡمَ قَرۡحٌ مِّثۡلُهُۥۚ ﴾

❝If a wound (and killing) has touched you, be sure a similar wound (and killing) has touched the others…❞

So you and them have been equal in the blows suffered, but you have a hope in Allāh that which they do not, as mentioned by Allāh,

﴿ وَلَا تَهِنُوا۟ فِى ٱبْتِغَآءِ ٱلْقَوْمِ ۖ إِن تَكُونُوا۟ تَأْلَمُونَ فَإِنَّهُمْ يَأْلَمُونَ كَمَا تَأْلَمُونَ ۖ وَتَرْجُونَ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ مَا لَا يَرْجُونَ ۗ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا ﴾

❝If you are suffering (hardships) then surely, they (too) are suffering (hardships) as you are suffering, but you have a hope from Allah (for the reward, i.e. Paradise) that for which they hope not❞

Translation of Sūrah an-Nisā 4:104 by Shaykh Muḥammad Taqī ud-Dīn al-Hilālī and Dr. Muḥsin Khān -May Allāh have mercy on them-

From the wisdoms in it is that in this world, Allāh grants from it to the believer and the disbeliever, the righteous and the evil-doers, so Allāh alternates the days between the people, a day for this group, and a day for another group. For this wordly life will pass-by and come to an end, unlike the life of the Hereafter, as it is exclusively for the ones who believed.

﴿ وَلِيَعۡلَمَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ ﴾

❝…So that Allāh may know those who believe…❞

This too is from the wisdom, that Allāh tests his slaves with defeats and trials, in order to distinguish between the believer and the hypocrite, because if the believers were to be victorious continuously in all events, then even those who did not want it would enter Islam. So if in some incidents, some types of trials were to occur, the believer who truly desires Islam in prosperity and adversity, in ease and in hardship, will become distinct from those who are not like that.

﴿ وَيَتَّخِذَ مِنكُمۡ شُهَدَآءَۗ ﴾

❝…And that He may take martyrs from among you…❞

And this too is from a type of wisdom, as martyrdom with Allāh is from the lofty positions, and there is no way to attain it except through realization of its means. So this is from His mercy towards His believing slaves, that he has made available the means, which is (usually) disliked by the people, such that they may attain that which they love of high statuses and eternal blessing.

﴿ وَٱللَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ ٱلظَّٰلِمِينَ ﴾

❝…And Allāh likes not the Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers).❞

Those who wrong themselves and refrain from fighting in His cause. It is as if in this is apparent criticism of the hypocrites and that they are hated by Allāh, so He made them refrain from fighting in His cause

﴿ وَلَوْ أَرَادُوا۟ ٱلْخُرُوجَ لَأَعَدُّوا۟ لَهُۥ عُدَّةً وَلَـٰكِن كَرِهَ ٱللَّهُ ٱنۢبِعَاثَهُمْ فَثَبَّطَهُمْ وَقِيلَ ٱقْعُدُوا۟ مَعَ ٱلْقَـٰعِدِينَ ﴾

❝And if they had intended to march out, certainly, they would have made some preparation for it; but Allāh was averse to their being sent forth, so He made them lag behind, and it was said (to them), “Sit you among those who sit (at home).”❞

Translation of Sūrah at-Tawbah 9:46 by Shaykh Muḥammad Taqī ud-Dīn al-Hilālī and Dr. Muḥsin Khān -May Allāh have mercy on them-

– Al-Imām ʿAbdur-Raḥmān bin Nāṣir as-Saʿdī -May Allāh have mercy on him-, Taysīr al-Karīm ar-Raḥmān fī Tafsīr Kalām al-Mannān
– Translated by Abū Āsiyah Muzaffar bin Hussain -May Allāh forgive him and his parents-


ثم سلَّاهم بما حصل لهم من الهزيمة، وبيَّن الحكم العظيمة المترتبة على ذلك، فقال: { إن يمسسكم قرح فقد مس القوم قرح مثله } فأنتم وإياهم قد تساويتم في القرح، ولكنكم ترجون من الله ما لا يرجون كما قال تعالى: { إن تكونوا تألمون فإنهم يألمون كما تألمون وترجون من الله ما لا يرجون } ومن الحكم في ذلك أن هذه الدار يعطي الله منها المؤمن والكافر، والبر والفاجر، فيداول الله الأيام بين الناس، يوم لهذه الطائفة، ويوم للطائفة الأخرى؛ لأن هذه الدار الدنيا منقضية فانية، وهذا بخلاف الدار الآخرة، فإنها خالصة للذين آمنوا. { وليعلم الله الذين آمنوا } هذا أيضا من الحكم أنه يبتلي الله عباده بالهزيمة والابتلاء، ليتبين المؤمن من المنافق؛ لأنه لو استمر النصر للمؤمنين في جميع الوقائع لدخل في الإسلام من لا يريده، فإذا حصل في بعض الوقائع بعض أنواع الابتلاء، تبين المؤمن حقيقة الذي يرغب في الإسلام، في الضراء والسراء، واليسر والعسر، ممن ليس كذلك. { ويتخذ منكم شهداء } وهذا أيضا من بعض الحكم، لأن الشهادة عند الله من أرفع المنازل، ولا سبيل لنيلها إلا بما يحصل من وجود أسبابها، فهذا من رحمته بعباده المؤمنين، أن قيَّض لهم من الأسباب ما تكرهه النفوس، لينيلهم ما يحبون من المنازل العالية والنعيم المقيم، { والله لا يحب الظالمين } الذين ظلموا أنفسهم، وتقاعدوا عن القتال في سبيله، وكأن في هذا تعريضا بذم المنافقين، وأنهم مبغضون لله، ولهذا ثبطهم عن القتال في سبيله. { ولو أرادوا الخروج لأعدوا له عدة ولكن كره الله انبعاثهم فثبطهم وقيل اقعدوا مع القاعدين }