Virtue of Praying Four Rakʿāt at the Beginning of the Day | Shaykh ʿAbdul Muḥsin al-ʿAbbād

Explanation of the Ḥadīth “Oh son of Ādam…” by Shaykh ʿAbdul Muḥsin al-ʿAbbād

Abū Dāwūd reported from Nuʿaim bin Hammār -May Allāh be pleased with him- that Allāh’s Messenger ﷺ narrated that Allāh -the Most High- said -And this is a Ḥadīth Qudsī-:

”يَا ابْنَ آدَمَ، لَا تُعْجِزْنِي مِنْ أَرْبَعِ رَكَعَاتٍ فِي أَوَّلِ نَهَارِكَ ؛ أَكْفِكَ آخِرَهُ“

صححه الألباني في “صحيح الجامع” (4339)

“Oh son of Ādam! Do not fall short in performing the four Rakʿāt for Me in the beginning of your day; I will provide for you in it’s latter part.”

Abū Dāwūd 1289, Graded Ṣaḥīḥ by al-Albānī in Ṣaḥīḥ al-Jāmiʿ 4339

[Explanation of the Ḥadīth]

The wording “Do not fail me”, meaning: Do not fail to accomplish this thing, and do not leave off seeking closeness towards me through it. So if you were to do that in the beginning of the day, I will provide for you in its latter part1. And the intention of the author in placing the Ḥadīth here2 indicates that the four Rakʿāt (mentioned here) are the Ṣalāt aḍ-Ḍuḥā3. Some of the people of knowledge say4, it is the Fajr prayer and the two Rakʿāt (of Sunnah) prior to it, on the grounds that the legal day begins from sunrise to sunset, and it is the same in the language. As per some of the linguists, it begins from sunrise to sunset, so if it is from the sunrise, then it means that the beginning of the day is the (time of) Ḍuḥā prayer.

The closest (opinion to being correct) is that the beginning of the day is from the rising of the dawn during which fasting occurs, and the fasting of the day is only from the rising of the dawn to the setting of the sun5.

In any case, the Ḍuḥā prayer is undoubtedly of great virtue, and the two supererogatory Rakʿahs of the Fajr prayer and the Fajr prayer, all of it are of great importance. And if a person performs the two (supererogatory) Rakʿahs of Fajr and the Fajr prayer, and he performs the two Rakʿahs of Ḍuḥā, then he is undoubtedly in great good.

– From the explanation of Sunan Abī Dāwūd by Shaykh ʿAbdul Muḥsin al-ʿAbbād -may Allāh preserve him-, vol. 158, p. 22

– Translated by Abū Āsiyāh Muzaffar al-Hindī -May Allāh forgive him and his parents-

Source: https://al-maktaba.org/book/32205/4227#p1


Translator’s Footnotes:

  1. The meaning of His saying, “I will provide for you in it’s latter part”. Al-ʿAzīmābādī (Muḥammad Ashraf bin Amīr bin ʿAlī bin Ḥaidar, Abū ʿAbdur-Raḥmān, aṣ-Ṣiddīqī) said, “It could imply that it is intended he will be sufficed from calamities and harmful incidents, and it could be intended that he is protected from sins and pardoned for what he committed in that, or (the meaning may be) more general than that, as mentioned by as-Suyūṭī.” ʿAwn al Maʿbūd 4/118
  2. Imam Abū Dāwūd mentioned it under the Chapter of Ṣalāt aḍ-Ḍuḥā
  3. This was the opinion held by Abū Dāwūd, at-Tirmithī, al-ʿIrāqī and Ibn Rajab al-Ḥanbalī and other than them
  4. Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibn al-Qayyim held that the four Rakʿāt mentioned here were referring to the Fajr and its Sunnah. Zād al-Maʿād 1/348
  5. Shaykh Muḥammad bin Ṣālīḥ al-ʿUthaymīn said: “The Ḥadīth can imply four Rakʿāt for Ḍuḥā or the Fajr prayer and its Sunnah as these are four Rakʿāt at the start of the day. There is a Ḥadīth that mentions whoever prays Fajr in congregation will be under Allāh’s care throughout the day. There is no clear-cut evidence that these four Rakʿāt mentioned only refer to the Ḍuḥā prayer.
    (A principle in using an evidence to establish a position) Whenever two possibilities are present then it’s not correct to only apply the evidence for one side of the argument. This principle is correct since there are two ways the text can be interpreted; therefore, both sides could use this text for their view and it should not only be used to support one legal opinion.” At-Taʿlīq ʿala al-Muntaqā (vol 2/12)


أورد أبو داود حديث نُعَيْمِ بْنِ هَمَّارٍ رضي الله عنه أن الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: [(يَقُولُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ -وهذا حديث قدسي-: يَا ابْنَ آدَمَ، لَا تُعْجِزْنِي مِنْ أَرْبَعِ رَكَعَاتٍ فِي أَوَّلِ نَهَارِكَ ؛ أَكْفِكَ آخِرَهُ)].

[شرح حديث (يا ابن آدم لا تعجزني من أربع ركعات في أول نهارك أكفك آخره)]

قال المصنف رحمه الله تعالى: [حَدَّثَنَا دَاوُدُ بْنُ رُشَيْدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا الْوَلِيدُ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ، عَنْ مَكْحُولٍ، عَنْ كَثِيرِ بْنِ مُرَّةَ أَبِي شَجَرَةَ، عَنْ نُعَيْمِ بْنِ هَمَّارٍ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏ “‏ يَقُولُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَا ابْنَ آدَمَ لاَ تُعْجِزْنِي مِنْ أَرْبَعِ رَكَعَاتٍ فِي أَوَّلِ نَهَارِكَ أَكْفِكَ آخِرَهُ ‏”].

وكلمة (لا تعجزني) قيل: معناها: لا يفوتك هذا الشيء، ولا تترك أن تتقرب إلي به، فإذا عملت ذلك في أول النهار أكفك آخره، وإيراد المصنف للحديث هنا يدل على أن الأربع الركعات هي صلاة الضحى، وبعض أهل العلم يقول: إنها صلاة الفجر والركعتان قبلها، على اعتبار أن النهار الشرعي يبدأ من طلوع الفجر إلى غروب الشمس، وهو كذلك في اللغة، وعند بعض أهل اللغة أنه يبدأ من طلوع الشمس إلى غروبها، فإذا كان من طلوع الشمس فمعناه أن أول النهار صلاة الضحى.والأقرب أن أول النهار من طلوع الفجر الذي يكون به الصيام، وصيام النهار إنما يكون من طلوع الفجر إلى غروب الشمس.

والأقرب أن أول النهار من طلوع الفجر الذي يكون به الصيام، وصيام النهار إنما يكون من طلوع الفجر إلى غروب الشمس.

وعلى كل حال فصلاة الضحى لا شك في أن فضلها عظيم، وركعتا الفجر النافلة وصلاة الفجر كل منهما شأنه عظيم،

والإنسان إذا أتى بركعتي الفجر وصلاة الفجر وأتى بركعتي الضحى فهو على خير عظيم بلا شك.

( من كتاب شرح سنن أبي داود للشيخ عبدالمحسن العبّاد حفظه الله ج١٥٨ ص٢٢)