When the Blood of a Non-Muslim is Inviolable | Shaykh Muḥammad bin Ṣāliḥ al-ʿUthaymīn

14th Ḥadīth from Sharh Al-Arbaʿīn an-Nawawiyyah by Ibn al-ʿUthaymīn (from 4:40 – 6:23)

On the authority of Ibn Masʿūd (may Allah be pleased with him) who said: The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said, 

“لَا يَحِلُّ دَمُ امْرِئٍ مُسْلِمٍ إلَّا بِإِحْدَى ثَلَاثٍ: الثَّيِّبُ الزَّانِي، وَالنَّفْسُ بِالنَّفْسِ، وَالتَّارِكُ لِدِينِهِ الْمُفَارِقُ لِلْجَمَاعَةِ”.

رَوَاهُ الْبُخَارِي وَمُسْلِمٌ

“The blood of a Muslim may not be spilled except for one of three (cases): the married person who commits adultery, a life for a life, and the one who forsakes his religion, thereby abandoning the Jamāʿah (community).”

Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 6878, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim 1676

In his explanation of the above ḥadīth, Shaykh Muḥammad bin Ṣāliḥ al-ʿUthaymīn -May Allāh have mercy on him- mentioned the cases when the blood of non-Muslims is not permissible to be spilled.

The blood of a non-Muslim is violable unless he is a Muʿāhad1, Mustaʾmin or Dhimmī and if that is the case, then his blood is preserved.

  • The Muʿāhad: Whoever had a covenant between us (Muslims) and him, as occurred between the Prophet ﷺ and Quraysh in al-Hudaybiyah.
  • The Mustaʾmin: The one who came from Dār Ḥarb2 but entered us upon (mutual) agreement to sell his trade or buy or work, then he is honored and safeguarded even if he were from a people who are enemies and at war with us, because he was given special security.
  • The Dhimmī: He is the one who resides with us and we safeguard and defend for him, and this is the one who pays the Jizyah3 in exchange for his protection him and residing in our country.

Hence, his saying, “The blood of a Muslim may not be spilled”, excludes by it the non-Muslim. So his blood is not sacred4 except for these three (mentioned above)”

– From the explanation of the 14th Ḥadīth from Al-Arbaʿīn an-Nawawiyyah by Shaykh Muḥammad bin Ṣāliḥ al-ʿUthaymīn – May Allāh have forgive him-
– Translated by Abū Āsiyāh Muzaffar al-Hindī -May Allāh forgive him and his loved ones-

Translator’s Footnotes:

  1. Narrated `Abdullah bin `Amr: The Prophet (ﷺ) said,

    “Whoever killed a Muʿāhad (person having a treaty with the Muslims), shall not smell the smell of Paradise though its smell is perceived from a distance of forty years.”

    Sahih al-Bukhari, 3166
  2. Lands of the disbelievers which do not have a treaty of peace with the Muslims
  3. A tax levied upon the people of the Scriptures (Jews and Christians, etc.), who are under the protection of a Muslim government.
  4. The Muḥārib: The non-Muslim who is in a state of war against Islam and the Muslims

2أن غير المسلم يحلّ دمه ما لم يكن معَاهَداً، أومستأمِناً، أو ذميّاً، فإن كان كذلك فدمه معصوم.

والمعاهد: من كان بيننا وبينه عهد، كما جرى بين النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وقريش في الحديبية.

والمستأمن: الذي قدم من دار حرب لكن دخل إلينا بأمان لبيع تجارته أو شراء أو عمل، فهذا محترم معصوم حتى وإن كان من قوم أعداء ومحاربين لنا، لأنه أعطي أماناً خاصاً.

والذّميّ: وهو الذي يسكن معنا ونحميه ونذبّ عنه، وهذا هو الذي يعطي الجزية بدلاً عن حمايته وبقائه في بلادنا.

إذاً قوله: “لايَحِلُّ دَمُ امْرِئٍ مُسْلِمٍ” يخرج بذلك غير المسلم فإن دمه حلال إلا هؤلاء الثلاثة.

شرح الحديث الرابع عشر من أحاديث الأربعين النووية
للشيخ محمد صالح العثيمين غفر الله له.

عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏”‏ مَنْ قَتَلَ مُعَاهَدًا لَمْ يَرَحْ رَائِحَةَ الْجَنَّةِ، وَإِنَّ رِيحَهَا تُوجَدُ مِنْ مَسِيرَةِ أَرْبَعِينَ عَامًا ‏”‏‏.‏